Focquaert, F., & Raine, A. (2012). Ethics of community-based sanctions. S. Barton-Bellessa (Gen. Ed.), Encyclopedia of community corrections (pp. 144-148). SAGE Publications.

This chapter puts forward a variety of ethical concerns and moral arguments related to community-based sanctions, and particularly focuses on the moral arguments that exist vis-à-vis community-based sanctions as an alternative to imprisonment. The chapter starts with a concise outline of a human rights and human dignity approach to community-based sanctions. Next, community-based sanctions are discussed within the wider framework of public health ethics and specific questions and moral arguments related to autonomy and mandatory treatment are brought forward. Then, the concept of community-based sanctions is placed within the broader framework of restorative justice and finally, the importance of proportionate community-based sanctions that are justifiable in themselves and not merely as an alternative to imprisonment is highlighted.